The 32-year-old raced to his fifty in just 23 deliveries, reaching the milestone with his third six.
Sharma, who had been going through a lean patch in the shortest format of the game in the past few games, shrugged all of it off and made his intentions pretty clear when he tonked Mustafizur Rahman for two fours and a six in his second over before stroking Al-Amin for two consecutive boundaries in the very next over.
"I knew that Rajkot is a good track, knew (it) will be hard for bowlers in the second innings", said Sharma, who is leading the side in the absence of the rested Virat Kohli. "We took advantage of that, had a great powerplay", he said.
"I never underestimate bowlers". I knew the conditions were flawless and there was no turn on offer, all I wanted to do was remain stationed and tonk the ball.
Dhawan was bowled by Aminul for 31.
That brought Shreyas Iyer to the crease, who quickly ended the contest with a brisk 24 not out from 13 balls, the hosts wrapping up victory with 4.2 overs to spare.More news: The captain becomes a player as Tiger Woods picks himself
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The win was set up by the bowlers, especially spinners Chahal and Washington Sundar, who returned a combined 8-0-53-3 to tie Bangladesh down to only 153 in batting-friendly conditions in Rajkot.
Bangladesh got off to a brilliant start with Liton das and Naim powering their side to 59 runs in just 7 overs.
Chahal, on his introduction, had nearly removed a set Liton, but Rishabh Pant's urgency to complete glovework quickly gave the batsman lifeline.
Bangladesh skipper Mahmudullah, meanwhile, said that they are not keen to change the winning combination and only will think of it if the situation arises.
"Irrespective of the condition we had to play". A bit disappointed because I got out at the wrong time, nevertheless I'm happy with my performance and the team's performance as well because we were under pressure after losing the first game.
The third and final T20I will be played at the Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium in Nagpur on Sunday.