Mr. Modi and Mr. Xi had also urged the special representatives of the two countries to "continue their efforts to arrive at a mutually-agreed framework for a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable settlement [of outstanding issues including on the boundary question] based on Political Parameters and Guiding Principles that were agreed by the two sides in 2005", the MEA said in its release.
"There is a new focus on people to people connect between the two countries", he added.
"We engaged in a candid discussion as friends in this heart-to-heart discussion on bilateral relations", Xi added.
Both the leaders have made a decision to establish a High-Level Economic and Trade Dialogue mechanism to better balance trade between the two countries.
China is also expected to ask India to consider its Huawei Technologies for the country's 5G mobile telephony network rollout. "Our position is anyways very clear that this is an internal matter of India", he said.
Foreign Secretary Vijay Gokhale told reporters that Chinese President Xi Jinping is ready to take measures to reduce India's deficit in the bilateral trade.
They were of the view that India and China share the common objective of working for a peaceful, secure and prosperous world in which all countries can pursue their development within a rules-based worldwide order.More news: Former Ukraine envoy testifies Trump pushed to oust her
More news: News anchor interrupted by young son pulling her hair during live broadcast
More news: Want to cast your federal election vote early? Here's how
Besides emphasizing the expansion of trade and investment, Modi and Xi resolved to work together in facing the challenges of radicalization and terrorism, Gokhale said.
Xi flew off to Nepal for a one-day stopover on his way home in a country that India has traditionally considered within its sphere of influence.
"Swachh Bharat" has been a pet project of the Prime Minister ever since he came to power in 2014 and his government, especially Minister Rajyavrdhan Singh Rathore also launched the #HumFitTohIndiaFit movement. Xi met with Modi at a time of tensions over Beijing's support for Pakistan in opposing India's downgrading of Kashmir's semi-autonomy and continuing restrictions on the disputed region.
Appreciating the age-old commercial and people-to-people contacts between India and China, the two leaders agreed on establishment of sister-state relations between Tamil Nadu and Fujian Province, exploring the possibility of establishing an academy to study links between Mahabalipuram and Fujian province.
China supported Pakistan in raising India's actions at the UN General Assembly meeting in NY.
Modi, for his part, also spoke highly of the meeting, saying Xi and he have held extensive communication in a friendly atmosphere, consolidated their friendship, improved mutual understanding and trust, and forged closer connections between the two ancient civilizations. The prime minister said he is also looking forward to meeting with Xi again in China.
It has been infuriated by China's backing for Pakistan, which controls a large chunk of Muslim-majority Kashmir.