May will bring a Withdrawal Agreement Bill, which implements the departure terms, in the week beginning June 3 - the same date that U.S. President Donald Trump begins a state visit to Britain at the invitation of Queen Elizabeth.
As positions harden in parliament, with many wanting to either leave the European Union without a deal or to stop Brexit altogether, May has turned to the opposition Labour Party, led by veteran socialist Jeremy Corbyn, to negotiate a way out of the impasse.
Following the meeting, a Downing Street spokesman said: "We will... be bringing forward the withdrawal agreement bill in the week beginning the 3rd June".
May was seeking a "stable majority in Parliament that will ensure the safe passage of the Withdrawal Agreement Bill and the UK's swift exit from the EU", the spokesman said.
The Prime Minister is understood to have requested the meeting, and also dispatched her chief Brexit negotiator Olly Robbins to Brussels for two days of talks about the possibility of making changes to the Political Declaration to strengthen protections for workers rights and request a say in future European Union trade deals for the UK.
Speaking to Iain Dale, she said: "She's just trying to remain leader of the Conservative Party and hope that something's going to turn up".
But her ministers discussed at a Cabinet meeting on Tuesday "the compromises the government was prepared to consider" and agreed to keep talking, May's spokesman said.
"She has at the same time said she would step aside once she has completed phase one". Keir Starmer and Tom Watson have estimated that up to 150 Labour MPs would refuse to vote for a Brexit deal that did not have another referendum attached.More news: Kate Middleton and Prince William Set to Meet Baby Archie Today
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Labour have called for a permanent and comprehensive customs union with the EU after Brexit, meaning there would be no internal tariffs (taxes) on goods sold between the United Kingdom and the rest of the bloc.
Some 13 former ministers, together with the chairman of the backbench 1922 Committee, Sir Graham Brady, wrote to Mrs May urging her not to risk splitting the party by conceding to Labour's key demand.
The signatories include Gavin Williamson, who she sacked as defence secretary, as well as potential leadership contenders Boris Johnson and Dominic Raab.
Defeat in the June vote would likely spell the end of her divorce deal and her premiership.
Downing Street described the session as "useful and constructive" and said the two teams will continue talks on Wednesday.
While European Union elections have always been seen as a safe place for mid-term protest votes to take place by the political establishment in the United Kingdom, polling showing that the month-old Brexit Party is now beating the Conservatives in even general election polling has sent shockwaves through Westminster.
But Mr Bone said unless there were substantial changes to the Irish backstop within the Withdrawal Agreement, it would not be backed by MPs. It would be followed by negotiations on a new trade deal with the EU.