This represents the latest of a string of losses for the Trump Administration on this issue. The lawsuit wants a court to order the government to take action to quickly phase out carbon dioxide emissions to a certain level by 2100 and develop a national climate recovery plan.
The judge in the case, U.S. District Judge Jesse M. Furman, said evidence suggests that Ross may have chose to add the question before asking Justice to request it.
Trial in the case had been scheduled to begin earlier this week in Eugene, Oregon, but the Supreme Court temporarily halted the trial earlier this month.
Critics of the addition of a citizenship question to the form have argued it could create a chilling effect and lead to an undercount.
The administration had argued there should be no trial until the justices rule on a fight over evidence.
The Justice Department was previously successful in convincing the Supreme Court to halt a lower court's order that Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross, who made the decision to add the question, be deposed.More news: Someone burned an effigy of Grenfell Tower
More news: United Kingdom armed forces to allow foreign nationals to join
More news: NBC Removing Trump Ad Amid Criticism For Running During Primetime
The government has tried repeatedly to stop the youth climate lawsuit since it was filed in 2015.
One of the lawyers for the young people brining the case, Julia Olson, said in a statement Friday night that they have asked for an immediate status conference to get the case "back on track for trial in the next week".
The trial beginning Monday is a consolidated case of lawsuits brought by the ACLU and a multi-state coalition led by NY. However, the Supreme Court allowed the deposition of a top Justice Department official as well as additional discovery in the case ordered by U.S. District Judge Jesse Furman.
The US Department of Commerce had said in a press release at the time that citizenship data would help the Department of Justice enforce the Voting Rights Act, which protects minority voting rights.
The census is carried out every 10 years and helps to determine political representation in Congress, federal funding of programs and other matters. It is used in the allocation of seats in Congress and the distribution of billions of dollars in federal funds.