The drills have gained an worldwide status, with troops from China and Mongolia set to take part in one of the stages.
Speaking at Tsugol, situated close to the borders of China and Mongolia, Putin said the drills would help boost the country's internal security capabilities and to extend a helping hand to allies, reports Efe news.
In addition, the Vostok-2018 war games demonstrated that the Russian army is capable of countering significant military threats, he stressed.
On site, Mr Putin praised the "mastery" of the Russian army and its "ability to deal with potential threats".
He commended them for their "high-level performance" in the "most active stage" of Vostok-2018.
Vostok-2018: West has nothing to fear, says Putin as China joins massive war games
China's People's Liberation Army is participating in the display of military force, with some 3,200 troops, 24 helicopters and six jets.
He added: "Therefore, we will continue to strengthen our armed forces, equip them with latest weapons and technologies, to develop worldwide military cooperation".
Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu said: "These are the largest drills of the Armed Forces, which acquired the status of worldwide drills, since the Zapad 1981 exercises".
The Russian leader greeted the 87 observers from 57 invited countries, the liaison mission of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the representation of the European Union.
Russian guards prepare to take a part in a parade prior to military exercises on the training ground Tsugol, about 250 kilometres south-east of Chita during Vostok 2018 in Eastern Siberia, Russia, Thursday, Sept. 13, 2018.More news: Josh Gordon Released by Cleveland Browns
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