Buttler, who played three Tests on the tour of India in 2016, is regarded as one of the world's best limited-overs batsmen.
"The first thing we talked about as a selection panel - and it coincided with one of my first trains of thought coming into the job - was how could we..."
Ed Smith, England's new national selector, is believed to have identified Buttler as a player who can help resurrect the team's poor batting performances.
England's new national selector Ed Smith believes it is "the flawless moment" to reintroduce Jos Buttler to Test cricket. "Jos is playing with great confidence and flair, and he will bring unique qualities to the Test team", national selector Ed Smith was quoted as saying by the European Central Bank.
Buttler is again in scintillating form in limited overs cricket, however, having recorded five consecutive 50s for the Rajahstan Royals in the IPL.
But he starred for MCC in the Champion County match against Essex in March where he took eight wickets in the match and scored a century in a victory over the county Champions in Barbados. James Vince, who batted at No. 3 for England in the 2017-18 Ashes and the subsequent series against New Zealand, has been dropped from the squad.
Cook, Stoneman, Malan, Root (captain), Stokes, Bairstow (keeper), Buttler, Woakes, Broad, Bess, Anderson, Wood.
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Buttler is expected to slot into the England team as a specialist batsman at No. 7, meaning Jonny Bairstow will continue wicket-keeping duties.
Vince wasn't alone in suffering at the hands of the Australian bowlers and he appeared to have earned a stay of execution when scoring 201 not out in Hampshire's drawn County Championship match with Somerset earlier this week.
Dom Bess was close to speechless when Ed Smith interrupted his morning trip round Ikea to tell him he was in line for a Lord's Test debut against Pakistan next week.
The first Test between England and Pakistan will get underway on May 24, while the second Test will be held at Headingley on June 1.
Smith said: 'With Jack Leach missing out through injury, the selection panel wanted to invest opportunity in a young spin bowler.
Chris Woakes and Mark Wood, who was recalled in Christchurch, will compete for the final fast-bowling spot while Mark Stoneman has retained his place at the top of the order despite a lean start to the season.
"Dom's strong form, character and all-round abilities presented a compelling case for selection".