Russian Federation will convene an emergency meeting of the United Nations (UN) Security Council over the missile attack, which violated the UN Charter and norms and principles of worldwide law, he said.
He reaffirmed Russia's view that a purported chemical attack in the Syrian town of Douma that prompted the strike was a fake.
"Russian Federation will demand a meeting of the UN Security Council, I think, for sure", Vladimir Dzhabarov, who is the deputy head of Russia's foreign affairs committee, was quoted by RIA newsagency as saying.
Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatalloh Ali Khamenei tweeted that the attack represented "a war crime", and Syria's Foreign Ministry described it as "barbarous aggression".
Mr Putin added that the strike had a "destructive influence on the entire system of global relations".
Though the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons is sending its experts to Syria to investigate, a group of Western countries "cynically" disregarded it and launched a military operation instead of waiting for the outcome of the investigation, Putin said.
Following the USA -led strikes, however, "we consider it possible to return to examination of this issue not only in regard to Syria but to other countries as well", Rudskoi said.
Russia's defence ministry claimed the whole attack was faked and said it had "irrefutable evidence" the United Kingdom was instrumental in staging it as a way to justify Western intervention in Syria.More news: Egypt extends state of emergency for 3 months
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"The honourable can not be humiliated", said a post from the Twitter account maintained by Mr Assad's office after the attack.
In a televised statement for state media, the Syrian military said the attacks would not diminish the army's resolve to press the fight against all remaining militants in the country.
China's Foreign Ministry said it objected to the use of force and warned that it could complicate the situation in Syria.
The Syrian foreign ministry said the US-led strikes would only "lead to inflaming tensions in the world" and threaten global security.
Still, the EU's goal is to prevent an escalation of the conflict, Ms Mogherini added, calling for an immediate ceasefire and a "genuine political transition" in Syria.
Announcing the strikes, US President Donald Trump criticised both Russian Federation and Iran, which have backed Assad's government.
Germany also did not take part, although Chancellor Angela Merkel issued a statement backing the action.
"We have evidence that proves Britain was directly involved in organising this provocation", defence ministry spokesman Igor Konashenkov said.