Syrian state-run television said Syria's air defenses have confronted a new "aggression", shooting down missiles over the area of Homs in the country's center.
Iranian news agencies also reported missiles being fired toward Shayrat.
Defense Secretary Mattis said at the time that no follow-up attacks were planned and that the Pentagon was careful to ensure the safety of Russian troops and Syrian civilians in the area.
Shayrat air base in Syria, following US Tomahawk Land Attack in April 2017.
It comes just days after the UK, US and France launched airstrikes on three targets following the latest alleged chemical attack by the Syrian regime in Douma.More news: Girls Lacrosse: Eastlake 10, Olympian 4
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Moscow and Damascus claimed two Israeli fighter planes carried out that airstrike "remotely from Lebanese territory".
Shayrat air base was targeted by US Tomahawk missiles in April a year ago in a strike ordered by President Donald Trump in retaliation for a suspected chemical attack on the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhun in Idlib.
Israel's main concern in Syria is the growing influence of Iran, which it says supplies weapons to Hezbollah from inside the country. Meanwhile, the Syrian state TV aired still image of what it said was the air defences intercepting the missiles.
An Israeli military spokesman said: "We don't comment on such reports".
Deputy Hezbollah leader Sheikh Naim Qassem told pro-Syrian government television channel al Maydeen he expected a reaction to the death of at least seven Iranian military personnel during a missile strike earlier this month on the T-4 airfield near Homs, which Iran blamed on Israel.