The United States past year targeted the Shayrat airbase with cruise missiles in response to a sarin gas attack on the rebel-held town of Khan Sheikhun.
State television showed pictures of a missile that was shot in the air above the air base only days after a US, British and French attack on Syrian targets in retaliation for a suspected chemical attack on the city of Douma on the outskirts of Damascus.
Syrian air defences have responded to a missile attack over Homs which targeted Shayrat air base late on Monday night, Syrian state television reported.
Following reports of an Israeli strike, an Israeli military spokesman said: "I'm not aware of such an incident".
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The Pentagon has denied initiating strikes or conducting any other military activity in Homs province.
According to yet unconfirmed reports, the missiles entered Syrian airspace from Lebanon, which may indicate that the Israeli Air Force could have been involved, Al-Masdar News reports, citing a military source.
Separately, a media outlet run by Hezbollah, a pro-Iranian militia, said Syrian government air defenses had shot down three missiles targeting Dumair military airport north east of the capital Damascus.
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Israel, which hardly ever acknowledges its raids inside Syria, failed to comment on its alleged involvement. Reports of that attack had been swirling on social media before the announcement.