The former Roma and Caligari defender died in his sleep following a suspected cardiac arrest.
Flags and banners were displayed throughout the stadium bearing Astori's name, though one of the most poignant tributes came in the 13th minute of the game.
The entire day was dedicated to Astori's memory, with all the mascots wearing the defender's now-retired No.13 shirt - half in Fiorentina jerseys, half in Cagliari colours...More news: Letters Calling for 'Punish A Muslim Day' Cause Concern in UK
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Astori, who made 289 top-flight appearances, joined Fiorentina on loan in August 2015 and the club signed him outright one year later.
Once the game had resumed, Vitor Hugo put the home side ahead with a well-directed header and promptly unveiled a shirt with Astori's picture on it after retrieving it from the home dugout.
Fiorentina midfielder Marco Benassi is sure "Davide Astori was on the field with us today and I like to think he helped Vitor Hugo's leap".
During the last stages of the game, Benevento's Massimo Coda struck the post, with Fiorentina's new captain Milan Badelj also hitting the woodwork.