Paxton died February 25 following surgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles on Valentine's Day a year ago.
Paxton, one of Hollywood's most popular actors with such credits as Twister and Big Love, was 61 when he died following a stroke last February 25, 11 days after the heart surgery to replace an aortic valve and fix an aortic aneurysm.
The lawsuit was filed against surgeon Ali Khoynezhad and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, the Fort-Worth Star Telegram reported Monday.
"Bill Paxton and his family trusted the physicians and staff at this medical facility but instead Cedars-Sinai betrayed their trust", said Paxton family attorney Bruce Broillet in a statement to press.
Paxton's family also claims the hospital was reckless in allowing Khoynezhad to perform an unnecessary and "maverick" surgical procedure and that it failed to discipline him afterward. "The surgeon's actions resulted in this tragic and preventable death".
During the course of that surgery, the doctor, the hospital and up to 100 other unnamed individuals "acted negligently and/or recklessly and provided harmful and/or offensive management and treatment of (Paxton) thereby causing his death", the lawsuit states.More news: Egypt in top-level talks with U.S. on political, economic, security releations
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A report by USC's Center for Health Journalism said that people with Paxton's particular heart valve condition, known as a bicuspid valve, often have aortic aneurysms - a bulging of the aorta that can ultimately lead to a fatal rupture.
According to the complaint filed by Paxton's family, the defendants "misrepresented and/or concealed information relating to the risks of surgery".
The lawsuit asserts the doctor and the hospital committed "battery", acting "with intent to harm" Paxton by "knowingly performing high-risk and unconventional surgery" without explaining the risks.
They believe those factors contributed to Paxton's post-surgery complications.
Khoynezhad has also been accused of not being present in the operation theater when Paxton started experiencing complications, because of which he received delayed treatment.
The actor is survived by his two children, James and Lydia, and his wife of 30 years, Louise Paxton. "This process ensures that we can continue to provide the highest quality care".