It has been felt for some time that Edmund could do with claiming a significant scalp to propel himself to the next level, and this may well be it.
The 49th-ranked Edmund, who lost to 11th seeded Anderson in five sets in the third round at last year's French Open, toughed out a 6-7 (4/7), 6-3, 3-6, 6-3, 6-4 win in nearly four hours.
It marked Anderson's sixth first-round exit in 10 appearances at the year's opening grand slam.
"It will be a tough match", said Edmund.
"It's a really good result for me", Edmund said. Also a quality player.More news: Abe arrives in Bulgaria
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"We had a five-set match in the French Open previous year and again in the fifth set I was just thinking about that and I didn't want the same thing to happen again".
"My first overall thought - personal satisfaction, the hours you put in, training, so many things like that".
"Those type of results make it just really feel good, worth it basically".
After a 20-minute rain delay, with scores locked at a set apiece on Showcourt 3, a concentration lapse cost 23-year-old Edmund the break for 3-5 as Anderson served his way to a two-sets-to-one advantage.
"My serve's improved and putting some more balls into play on the returns is definitely going to be a good one for me against Kevin". In an interview to Eurosport, Edmund says, "I've practiced three or four days now, two hours a day on court. I thought I did a pretty good job". At the end of the day you've got to be selfish.
The victory set Edmund up with an encounter with Uzbek journeyman Denis Istomin. "I still get on with him fine".